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Planet Candidates

Note: When you mouse over the Kepler "Confirmed Planets" number near the top right of every page of this website, the "Planet Candidates" number that pops up includes planet candidates that have been confirmed as planets.

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The NASA Exoplanet Archive collects and serves public data to support the search for and characterization of all extra-solar planets (exoplanets) and their host stars. The data include published light curves, images, spectra and parameters, and time-series data from surveys that aim to discover transiting exoplanets. Tools are provided to work with the data, particularly the display and analysis of transit data sets from Kepler and CoRoT. All data are validated by the Exoplanet Archive science staff and traced to their sources.

At the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) you will find:

See also


Kepler's Planet Candidates: A Family Portrait
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This is a graphic of 2,740 stars which have candidate planets in transit. The planets are small black disks against the bright disk of each star. Using the prolific planet hunting Kepler spacecraft, astronomers have discovered 2.740 planet candidates orbiting other suns since the Kepler mission's search for Earth-like worlds began in 2009. To find them, Kepler monitors a rich star field to identify planetary transits by the slight dimming of starlight caused by a planet crossing the face of its parent star. In this remarkable illustration created by Jason Rowe of NASA's Kepler Science Team, all of Kepler's planet candidates are shown in transit with their parent stars ordered by size from top left to bottom right. Simulated stellar disks and the silhouettes of transiting planets are all shown at the same relative scale, with saturated star colors. Of course, some stars show more than one planet in transit, but you may have to examine the picture at high resolution to spot them all. For reference, the Sun is shown at the same scale, by itself below the top row on the right. In silhouette against the Sun's disk, both Jupiter and Earth are in transit.

Planet Candidates in Motion — The Kepler Planet Orrery

An orrery is a moving model of a planetary system. Daniel Fabrycky, University of California at Santa Cruz, has created animated orrerys to display the candidate planets in multiple planet systems.

This links to an animated model of these candidate planetary systems

See the latest Kepler Multiple-Planet Systems - Orrery III (11/5/13). It displays all the multiple-planet candidate systems discovered, moving in orbit about their stars. Orbits go through the entire mission (3.5 years). Hot colors to cool colors (red to yellow to green to cyan to blue to gray) are big planets to smaller planets, relative to the other planets in the system.

Orreries from February 2011
This links to an animated model of these candidate planetary systems.
Click to visit Kepler Gallery animation of 1,235 Planet Candidates and Their Stars (from 2011)

The Kepler Planet Orrery displays is an animation of all the multiple-planet candidate systems discovered, moving in orbit about their stars. Orbits go through the entire mission (3.5 years). Hot colors to cool colors (red to yellow to green to cyan to blue to gray) are big planets to smaller planets, relative to the other planets in the system.

This links to an animated model of these candidate planetary systems.
Kepler Orrery -- Multiple Planet Candidate Systems

The Kepler Planet Candidate Orrery of Small Orbits shows multiple-planet candidate systems discovered. These planets are much closer to their stars than Mercury to the Sun (0.387 AU on average) with outer planet candidate's distance less than 0.17 AU. (1 AU = distance from the Sun to the Earth.) The details of these compact systems are displayed. Orbits go through the first five months of Kepler observations. Hot colors to cool colors (red to yellow to green to cyan to blue to gray) are big planets to smaller planets, relative to the other planets in the system.



Kepler Exoplanet Candidates from blprnt on Vimeo.


Planet Candidates — Chronology

February 1, 2011
Bill Borucki, Kepler's Principal Investigator, announced 1,235 planet candidates found in the first four months of Kepler observations. Prior to his announcement, about 500 exoplanets had been discovered by astronomers using all methods. Link to the press conference, announcement, and scientific publication in NASA Kepler News.

Kepler Planet Candidates Catalog (the 1,235 candidates from 2011 April 19):
tab-delimited (Plain Text, 138 KB) --||-- spreadsheet (XLS, 374 KB) --||-- machine-readable (Plain Text, 213 KB)
Properties of Host Stars: machine-readable (Plain Text, 71 KB)
False Positives (Plain Text, 62 KB) - Table 4 of Data Release paper, with explanation (Plain Text, 2 KB).

2012 Feb 27

The Kepler Science Team found 1,790 host stars with a total of 2,321 planet candidates, up from the 1,235 planet candidates announced 2011 February 1. Some candidates may not be planets—false positives that look like transiting planets, but are not. Many scientists are doing follow-up observing with ground-based telescopes to confirm discoveries. Confirmed planets are announced as discoveries.

See Astrophysical Journal article "Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler III: Analysis of the First 16 Months of Data" (by Batalha, et al).


Kepler Planet Candidates Catalog (machine readable files, updated 2012 Feb 27):

False Positives list at MAST.

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